You only need to watch a movie like Interstellar to start wondering about wormholes, black holes and the possibility of traveling through dimensions of time, and space.
Although there are many theories surrounding all of these, the truth is we are only beginning to scratch the tip of the iceberg.
Nevertheless, that tip of the iceberg is more than enough to leave anyone astounded by the awesomeness of our universe.
What are Black Holes?
Simply put, black holes are places in the universe that due to their massive gravitational field can virtually pull any imaginable object into it – including light.
The term was first coined in 1967 by John Wheeler, a physicist who based on Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, named them this way.
There are three types of black holes: primordial, stellar, and super-massive.
Primordial Black Holes
Primordial black holes were formed shortly after the Big Bang. They are very small, some of them being as small as an atom.
However, their huge mass (which can equal that of a mountain) make them have a great gravitational field.
Stellar Black Holes
The most common of them all. They are created when a star collapses and its mass is compressed in a very small region in space.
One day this is what will happen to our Sun, which is as good a reason as any, to start thinking about leaving Earth and colonizing another solar system as soon as possible.
As a species we don’t want to be caught in a situation where the Sun starts to expand (which happens prior to the black hole process) if we don’t have a plan b in process.
Super-massive Black Holes
Super-massive black holes are formed at the same time galaxies are created and some of them can have billions of times more mass than stellar black holes.
What are Wormholes?
Wormholes, also known as Einstein-Rose bridges, are tunnels that could connect two different parts of the universe.
Unlike black holes, we still don’t know for sure if they exist – as none have been located yet.
What we know is taken also from Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and theorists suggest that traveling in time and space could be possible with them.
Researchers at MIT said in 2013 that wormholes could actually be two black holes entangled together. It is thought that this entanglement may be due to both black holes being created at the same time or that radiation pulled from a black hole could have been retrieved by another black hole causing such entanglement.
It would be fair to say that time is a confusing measurement.
One of the theories regarding wormholes is that they could may make time travel possible and Stephen Hawkings sums it up like this:
“Theoretically, a time tunnel or wormhole could do even more than take us to other planets. If both ends were in the same place, and separated by time instead of distance, a ship could fly in and come out still near Earth, but in the distant past. Maybe dinosaurs would witness the ship coming in for a landing,”
One thing I didn’t realize before writing this article was how small it is believed wormholes are. For some reason I was picturing a big vortex in space.
It is believed that wormholes, if they do exist, are many times smaller than an atom.
To be able to fit a person, or a spaceship, through a wormhole you would need to stretch it out considerably. Whether or no that is possible is as yet unknown.
Black Holes vs Wormholes: Key Differences
There are many differences between black holes and wormholes. The first difference lies in their existence. By now, we know that black holes do exist.
The first one was discovered in 1971 and the nearest one is the V404 Cygni and it’s at a distance of 7,800 light years from the Earth.
Although black holes haven’t been seen directly given their black color, they were discovered due to their effects on objects close to them.
On the other hand, we haven’t yet discovered a real wormhole in the known universe.
All we know about wormholes is either on paper, software, or in the minds of astrophysicists.
The size of a black hole can vary from being as small as an atom or as large as a star depending on the type of black hole.
We have less information about wormholes than about black holes. Nevertheless, scientists predict that primordial wormholes could be billions of billions of times smaller than a centimeter.
What They Do
In theory, a black hole can pull any object into its domain and the object will disappear from the face of the universe.
If a star were to pass too close to one, the black hole could tear it apart. A wormhole is thought to work as a channel that would allow for space and time travel between two different parts of the universe.
How They are Created
Most black holes are caused by the destruction of a star in a kind of implosion. It is unclear how wormholes are created however, they may be an entanglement between two different black holes.
A black hole has three main parts, the ergo-sphere, the event horizon, and the singularity. The ergo-sphere is its most outer part in which the gravitational force starts pulling objects into it.
The event horizon is also known as the point of no return because an object that has passed it has no chance of going back.
The singularity is its core or central part.
A wormhole has mainly a mouth and a throat.
It can be hypothesized that the mouth is a black hole and the other end is another black hole. The throat of the wormhole is believed to have negative energy in it.
This negative energy which is a type of exotic matter is what prevents the wormhole from collapsing into itself.
Journey into the Hole
As you can see wormholes and blackholes are very different from each other.
Until someone finds a wormhole, stretches it to fit an object or person through, and sends something or someone into it we will not know exactly how they work.
Even if someone does go into a wormhole we may still not know as they may possibly end up in another dimension or universe, with no method of ever being able to communicate back to us.
Do you think mankind will ever travel through a wormhole?